Archive for February 11th, 2011

February 11, 2011

Mubarak Leaves Egypt in Turmoil


By Alaa Shahine and Cam Simpson – Feb 11, 2011 11:07 AM ET

It took 18 days of pressure from Cairo protesters as the U.S. and the European Union called for change to end the 30-year presidency of Hosni Mubarak, who kept peace with Israel, battled Islamic militants and preserved American interests in the Middle East.

His departure came after violence killed more than 300 people, according to the United Nations, with police sometimes firing on demonstrators and pro-Mubarak forces attacking as well. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world, which holds more than 50 percent of all known oil reserves.

The replacement for Mubarak — who said just yesterday that he would stay until September elections while handing powers to his vice-president — must have democratic legitimacy, former U.S. National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski said in a telephone interview before Mubarak said he would leave.

Egypt is now at a stage of development in which it is reasonable and expected by the population,” Brzezinski said of the need for a leader popularly elected in free and fair elections.

In its final days, Mubarak’s regime also faced tough criticism from its most powerful ally, the U.S. Since the protests began, officials in the administration of President Barack Obama have been condemning violence wielded against demonstrators, calling for a faster transition and saying emergency laws, which had been used to justify harsh security tactics, should be lifted.

Facebook Opponents

Mubarak was brought down by an unexpected coalition of opposition politicians, members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood group and, most important, tens of thousands of young people who planned and organized the demonstrations on Facebook and Twitter.

Chief among them: Wael Ghonim, a 30-year-old Google Inc. executive whose social media expertise helped trigger and propel the demonstrations. He was arrested and held in secret detention for more than a week as Mubarak’s government shut down the Internet and mobile services, the tools he used to help make the protests possible.

Two days after his Feb. 7 release, Ghonim told those gathered in Tahrir Square, “I’m not a hero. You’re all heroes, the martyrs who have died in the struggle are the real heroes.” Pictures of those killed were posted around the square.

Mubarak, a former air-force general who as president was commander of the largest military force in the Arab world, was the nation’s longest-serving ruler in more than 150 years. He controlled a government that was the linchpin of U.S. policy in the Middle East for three decades, Brzezinski said.

Peace With Israel

Mubarak kept peace with Israel, with which Egypt had had formal peace for only two years when he took office, supported U.S. counterterrorism efforts, backed Iranian sanctions over its nuclear program and helped broker Palestinian-Israeli negotiations.

At the same time, Mubarak, an 82-year-old with jet-black hair, controlled a regime condemned by the U.S. government for its lack of basic freedoms at home, for its widespread suppression of political opposition and for the torture of Egyptian citizens, which was often carried out with impunity, according to the State Department.

“If you are prepared to reconcile those two realities, then it seems to me that, on balance, Mubarak has been a partner and a friend to the U.S. and the region,” said former U.S. Middle East peace negotiator Aaron David Miller.

Still, Miller said, the cost was steep.

‘Anger and Animosity’

“His increasing authoritarianism and repression generated enormous anger and animosity, not just towards him, but also toward the United States,” said Miller, who served as a State Department official under six U.S. secretaries of state and was a peace negotiator in the Clinton Administration. He is now a public policy scholar at the Washington-based Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

Mubarak was propelled to power by the 1981 assassination of Anwar Sadat, the leader who made peace with Israel two years earlier. Only Mohammed Ali, who ruled Egypt from 1805 to 1849, governed longer in the past 200 years.

Miller said three decades of stability in the region for the U.S. and Israel helped Mubarak buy a pass from Washington when he failed to follow through on pledges to open the country’s political system to competition that would have posed a challenge to his own rule.

Egypt’s benchmark stock index has risen more than seven- fold in the past 10 years. The MSCI Emerging Markets Index has almost tripled in the same period. Egypt’s stock market is the second-biggest in North Africa by market value after Morocco according to data compiled by Bloomberg.

Protected Ruling Elite

Since the global financial crisis, though, Egypt’s economic growth rate has dropped below the 7 percent that the government estimates is necessary to create enough jobs for a growing working-age population — such as the young people who camped out in Cairo’s Tahrir Square.

Suppression of a wide array of perceived rivals under an emergency law promulgated in 1981 marked Mubarak’s reign. Some analysts and opposition groups, including the Muslim Brotherhood, said his policies protected the ruling elite while leaving the poor grappling with an inflation rate that reached more than 20 percent in 2008.

Mubarak’s governments blamed population growth and the economic mismanagement of past administrations for the poverty that plagued the nation of 80 million.

Egypt’s per-capita gross domestic product more than quadrupled from 1981 to 2009, when it stood at $6,000, lower than countries such as Namibia and Gabon, according to the CIA World Factbook.

Funeral Visit

Mubarak never put in doubt the policy of diplomatic rapprochement with Israel, though his only visit to the Jewish state was for the funeral of assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in 1995.

He renewed ties with Arab states, which had almost universally rejected Cairo’s separate peace accord with Israel under Sadat. They showed their anger by breaking diplomatic relations with Egypt, suspending its membership in the Arab League and moving the group’s headquarters from Cairo to Tunis.

Addressing Arab leaders in Cairo in 1996, Mubarak stressed his commitment to regional peace, which he maintained until the end of his regime.

“There isn’t among us anyone who wants to take the region back to the destruction of war or to the phase of no war and no peace,” he said. “We are sincerely determined to struggle for peace until the end.”

Brzezinski, who was national security adviser to President Jimmy Carter when the U.S. helped forge the Egypt-Israel accord, said that was Mubarak’s most important legacy.

Avoiding Legacy

“I think avoiding war in the region is of importance to the United States,” Brzezinski said. “The moment Egypt signed a separate peace treaty with Israel the possibility of an encircling attack on Israel, like in 1973, faded.”

Mubarak also retained Egypt’s alliance with the U.S., which began with Sadat’s break with the then-Soviet Union. Egypt now receives about $1.3 billion a year in U.S. military aid. U.S. non-military aid last year was $250 million, according to the State Department.

Critics, including the group Human Rights Watch, said he went too far, arguing that the alleged torture of terrorism suspects created more danger than it quelled.

The government’s “foul record on torture” played an important part in fueling the anger that brought Mubarak down, said Sarah Leah Whitson, the Middle East director at the New York-based Human Rights Watch.

Five Times President

She called on the new government to end torture and prosecute perpetrators.

Mubarak was elected president five times. Four were by referendum in which he was the only candidate, and one, in 2005, was an election against an array of weak candidates. Throughout his reign, he retained the state-of-emergency rules that restricted political activity and free speech.

Like Egypt’s three other presidents since the revolution of 1952, Mubarak came from the military. Almost three decades after he assumed power, that same military would announce that it recognized “the legitimacy of the people’s demands” and promise not to fire on peaceful demonstrators.

Until the crisis that began with demonstrations Jan. 25, Mubarak had never appointed a vice president or officially designated anyone as his likely successor. The rise of his son, Gamal, up the ranks of the ruling National Democratic Party led Egyptians to conjecture that he would succeed his father. Both men repeatedly denied this.

Brotherhood Opponents

His most visible political opponents were members of the Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamic group that had renounced violence in the 1970s. Dissatisfaction among Egyptians over corruption and economic inequality fueled its growth.

In 2005, Mubarak opened presidential elections to multiple candidates. The regulations were so restrictive that no strong challengers emerged; the runner-up, lawyer Ayman Nour, won only 7 percent of the vote to Mubarak’s 88 percent. After the election, Nour was jailed for four years on fraud charges that human-rights groups say were trumped up.

In elections later in 2005, the Muslim Brotherhood won 88 seats in the 454-member parliament — a surprise result that prompted a crackdown on Islamic activists and on anti-Mubarak secular politicians, judges, newspaper editors, bloggers and street demonstrators. Hundreds of Brotherhood activists were rounded up and some put on trial in closed-door military courts.

In 2007, a constitutional amendment forbade parties with religious ties, eliminating the Muslim Brotherhood from fielding a presidential candidate. Rules on running as an independent were also tightened, making a Brotherhood-affiliated nominee unlikely.

To contact the reporters on this story: Alaa Shahine in Cairo at Cam Simpson in London at

To contact the editor responsible for this story: Riad Hamade in Dubai at

February 11, 2011

Claiming snub, Hmong bury Vang Pao in LA


LOS ANGELES — Emotional and angry Hmong on Wednesday buried legendary general Vang Pao in California after failing to win a funeral with US military honors for the commander of the Vietnam War-era secret army.

Draping a US flag over his coffin, tearful mourners escorted Vang Pao’s body to Los Angeles for burial at a private cemetery after an elaborate six-day funeral in Fresno, the central California city home to a major Hmong community.

Vang Pao, who died of pneumonia at age 81 last month, led his hill people in Laos in a CIA-backed campaign against communist forces during the Vietnam War. Thousands of Hmong later fled to the United States speaking of persecution.

Hmong Americans appealed to bury Vang Pao as a hero in Arlington National Cemetery outside Washington. The Pentagon said no, saying that the limited spaces at Arlington were reserved for US combat veterans.

Charlie Waters, a Korean war veteran who was a friend of Vang Pao, said he tried frantically until the last minute to seek President Barack Obama’s intervention but could not get a response from the White House.

“This is just so sickening,” Waters told AFP, saying that Vang Pao’s widow “is just going crazy and the veterans are furious.”

“They are asking, ‘Why doesn’t the United States love us? Why are we here?'” Waters said. “The family is lying on the floor, crying.”

“It’s breaking my heart,” Waters said.

The Hmong community was divided on whether Vang Pao could be disinterred if Washington gave the green light for a funeral at Arlington.

Waters said the Hmong advocates would keep pressing for a response from President Barack Obama, saying: “He’s at least got to give a letter of condolence to the family. It’s unacceptable to have nothing.”

But there were no signs of a change of heart. The Pentagon board that decided against Vang Pao’s burial at Arlington said that its decision was unanimous.

Four members of Congress wrote to Obama urging him to reconsider the burial decision, saying that an Arlington funeral would mark “a solid step in the journey of Hmong recognition.”

“Fighting shoulder to shoulder with American soldiers, many Hmong soldiers paid the ultimate sacrifice to our country. The United States owes them a debt of gratitude and their service should be appropriately honored,” they said.

The letter was signed by Representatives Jim Costa and Dennis Cardoza, both Democrats from California; Representative Michael McCaul, a Republican from Texas, and Larry Kissell, a Democrat from North Carolina.

Vang Pao was buried at Forest Lawn, one of the most prominent private cemeteries in Los Angeles. Hmong leaders said the spot was selected at the last minute.

Situated near Hollywood studios, the cemetery is also the resting place of pop icon Michael Jackson along with screen legends Humphrey Bogart and Clark Gable.

Vang Pao joined the military at a young age, receiving training from the French as he became the first Laotian general from the Hmong community, who then lived mostly by slash-and-burn agriculture in the hills.

US intelligence agents tapped Vang Pao when they sought a force in Laos to fight off North Vietnamese communists, who along with the United States had turned the neighboring country into an unwitting battleground.

Vang Pao became legendary for his organizational skills from his mountain post, guiding everything from US air strikes to medical supplies and managing a motley army of Hmong, lowland Lao and Thai mercenaries.

North Vietnam triumphed in 1975 by seizing Saigon, now Ho Chi Minh City, and communists afterward took over Laos. Vang Pao was sentenced to death in absentia and became the leader for some 250,000 Hmong who moved to the United States.

But Vang Pao remained a controversial figure. In 2007, he was arrested in California on charges of plotting to overthrow a foreign government after an undercover agent tried to sell him weapons at a Thai restaurant.

Prosecutors dropped their charges in 2009 and recently ended the case for all Hmong Americans over the case.

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February 11, 2011

Egypt protests heat up as army endorses Mubarak

Protesters fill Tahrir Square and take positions outside government buildings


Last Updated: Friday, February 11, 2011 | 7:47 AM ET

CBC News


Thousands of protesters converged in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, on Friday, continuing to demand that President Hosni Mubarak step down despite his pledge to stay. (David Common/CBC)

Tensions are rising in Egypt as tens of thousands of protesters continue to demand that authoritarian President Hosni Mubarak step down despite his announcement that he would remain in office until September.


Live updates from our reporters in Egypt

Egypt’s military said Friday that it endorses Mubarak’s decision not to resign, which he announced Thursday after widespread speculation that he would announce he was stepping down during a special address to the country.

The military said in a statement that it supports his plan for a peaceful transfer of power, and for free and fair presidential elections later in the year.

It also promised to end the country’s 30-year state of emergency once “the current situation has ended.”

Protesters had demanded a repeal of the law, which allows for the arbitrary arrest and detention of those the military perceives as agitators.

Despite the army’s concession, protesters remained furious Friday, swarming outside the presidential palace and streaming by the thousands into Cairo’s Tahrir Square.

Late Thursday, Mubarak gave most of his powers to his vice-president but refused to resign or leave the country.

‘Down, down Hosni Mubarak!’

In a show of disrespect, protesters in Cairo's Tahrir Square hold their shoes high during an 18th straight day of anti-government demonstrations. (David Common/CBC)

It was not immediately known whether Mubarak was at the palace in the Heliopolis area. There were unconfirmed reports he had left Cairo after his announcement Thursday, the CBC’s Nahlah Ayed said on Twitter, warning that people should “be wary of such reports.”

Protesters chanting slogans like “Go out! Go out! and “Down, down Hosni Mubarak!” were separated from the al-Ouruba palace gate by four army tanks and coils of barbed wire. Army troops at the scene Friday did not prevent more protesters from joining the crowd.

In Tahrir Square, which has been the centre of mass rallies that began on Jan. 25, the crowds were “very, very loud” and “angry,” the CBC’s David Common said.

Those who would normally have attended Friday prayers at mosques throughout Cairo instead prayed in Tahrir Square, also known as Liberation Square, said Common.

“They are now turning from mild prayer and thought to outright anger,” he said. “People are very motivated trying to send the signal to the regime that they aren’t going anywhere.”

Hundreds of demonstrators formed a human barricade around the building that houses state TV and radio, which many believe acts as a mouthpiece for Mubarak’s government. Protesters blocked people from entering the building, prompting television hosts already inside to apologize to viewers for a lack of on-air guests.

Soldiers and tanks were guarding the street that leads to the TV building, which overlooks the Nile, but were not stopping the protesters from pouring in.

With files from The Associated Press

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